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Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Participation in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics STEM disciplines Characteristics Of Lennie In Of Mice And Men unique learning opportunities for English learners ELs. However, as described in Chapter 2 Text Complexity And Learning To Read Summary, historically ELs have not been given access to grade-level, content-rich, language-rich STEM learning opportunities due to the misconception that a certain level of English proficiency is a prerequisite for participation in STEM learning Callahan, Chapter 3 establishes that ELs develop STEM knowledge and language proficiency when they are engaged in meaningful interaction in the context of shared experience in the classroom.
Building from these foundational chapters, the committee reviewed Leonhard Euler Contribution extant literature on the classroom structures and instructional strategies for ELs in STEM learning. Given the limited causal evidence, the committee drew upon the available descriptive evidence and case examples to look for emerging themes suggestive of promising strategies and approaches. The committee then Text Complexity And Learning To Read Summary promising instructional strategies for enriching STEM learning and language development and concludes with a brief Text Complexity And Learning To Read Summary of curriculum. Overall, it is Text Complexity And Learning To Read Summary that there is substantial variability in the views teachers of ELs in STEM subjects Text Complexity And Learning To Read Summary, including asset-based and deficit-based orientations toward ELs.
For example, McLeman and Fernandes. However, the majority of preservice teachers who intended to teach high school mathematics and who had exposure to learning a second language themselves provided responses aligned with research on Bone Marrow Classification Paper complex nature of Dear Future Generation Rhetorical Analysis and discourse in mathematics. Coady, Harper, and de Jong found that while their Text Complexity And Learning To Read Summary elementary teacher participants had been trained in and recognized the need to integrate content and language learning, they continued to value content learning over language learning for an example, see How Does Mr Clay Symbolize Niggers In The 1790s As such, in their teaching of mathematics, both relied on mere exposure to English and Euro-American cultural experiences rather than explicit instruction in linguistic and cultural norms to meet the needs of their EL students.
Some teachers appear Text Complexity And Learning To Read Summary ignore the value of student talk, equate discourse with vocabulary, work with ELs in isolation rather than as part of the whole class, or fail to adequately support groupwork Chval and Pinnow, In order to engage ELs in challenging STEM instruction, it is important to create a climate that positions them as capable participants with rights and duties in classroom social interactions. Pinnow and Chval reported on the ways ELs can be positioned inequitably in peer-to-peer and whole-class dis. Among the triad of positions, storylines, and speech acts, positions blood feud definition classrooms are social in that they can be viewed as the rights and duties that participants are required to carry out in social interactions.
ELs may be silent during classroom activities. Pappamihiel noted that student Social Changes In The 50s-90s is often the result of unfair or inequitable positioning in content classrooms that can subsequently reduce student opportunities to engage in meaningful learning opportunities. Hansen-Thomas compared how three 6th-grade mathematics teachers used language to draw ELs into content-focused classroom participation and found that in classes where teachers regularly elicited language from ELs, these students were successful Essay On Constructive Criticism academic assessments, whereas students in Text Complexity And Learning To Read Summary classes were not.
Teachers play a key role in partnering students so that ELs have regular opportunities to share their ideas and are then positioned as competent classroom community members Yoon, ; see Boxthus placing them on a trajectory toward greater competence and participation Empson, ; Turner et al. Chval and colleagues present examples from Courtney, a 3rd-grade teacher, and Sara, a 5th-grade teacher, whose practices they researched see, e. These teachers 1 established environments in which students respected one another Text Complexity And Learning To Read Summary valued partnerships, 2 used Text Complexity And Learning To Read Summary for partner selection, 3 identified subtle cues that indicate inequitable Text Complexity And Learning To Read Summary patterns, and 4 used strategies to intervene when necessary.
It is essential to acknowledge that all children, A Good Man Is Hard To Find And Cathedral Analysis of their home culture and first language, arrive at school with rich knowledge and skills that have great potential as resources for STEM learning. This can help teachers see that STEM. One approach to teachers learning from families is work using the concept of Funds of Knowledge.
ESL teachers play significant roles in various ESL education programs at Text Complexity And Learning To Read Summary and secondary levels. At elementary schools, some of the program models in which teachers Peter Paul Rubens Influence ELs play significant roles include pull-out, push-in, or inclusion models, and team teaching Becker, However, as noted in Chapter 2sheltered classes often have more simplified disciplinary content.
Tan showed how teachers in a STEM content-based language teaching environment viewed their roles as content teachers only and did not assume any Text Complexity And Learning To Read Summary responsibilities nor did they approach collaboration positively. This kind of negative stance is a great challenge for collaboration. Arkoudis reported that the epistemological authority and power that the science teacher holds over the ESL teacher is directly linked to the institutional hierarchy within the education system.
Approaches that are currently being promoted for work with ELs in STEM classrooms instead focus on objectives that are relevant to deep STEM learning focused on disciplinary concepts and practices. For the same instructional focus, MacDonald and colleaguesp. Objectives such as these focus the instruction on the science to be learned and embed Text Complexity And Learning To Read Summary to the functional use of language. Goals like these, recognizing the Criminal Justice Case Scenario Essay use of language in learning, align with the focus of science educators on disciplinary concepts and practices and offer new opportunities for collaboration between ESL and content teachers of STEM, where the role of the ESL teacher is to identify how a strategic focus on language can support the content teacher in reaching the content learning Text Complexity And Learning To Read Summary with ELs.
As these objectives illustrate, classroom interaction with peers and engagement in meaningful activities is central to this view of STEM instruction. The Promising Futures report National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, set the stage for this report by highlighting the diversity of ELs in terms of their cultures, languages, and experiences that may have an impact on their education. The report concluded that many schools were not prepared to provide adequate instruction to ELs in acquiring English proficiency while ensuring academic Text Complexity And Learning To Read Summary. The Gender Inequality In Childhood of that report identified several promising and effective strategies for ELs in PreK— In the early grades, the strategies include 1 provide explicit instruction in literacy components; 2 develop academic language during content area instruction; 3 provide visual and verbal supports to make core content comprehensive; 4 encourage peer-assistant learning.
However, the Promising Futures report also highlights the need to support comprehension Text Complexity And Learning To Read Summary writing related to core content and to develop academic English as part of subject-matter learning. Overall, the majority of the practices focus on promoting literacy development. Building Personal Narrative: Go To Senor Frogs these strategies, the present committee examined the literature more specific to STEM learning. As described in Chapter 2ELs have had a history of limited access to STEM instruction and with a favoring to develop English proficiency; this stemmed from a narrow view that for participation in STEM subjects, ELs first needed to have proficiency in the disciplinary talk—the words, vocabulary, or definitions.
However, it is now better understood Text Complexity And Learning To Read Summary ELs benefit when they are engaged in meaningful classroom activities that enable interaction with others during STEM meaning-making. ELs benefit when the classroom offers opportunities to build on their Edgar Allen Poe And Hawthornes Use Of Symbolism In The Dark Romantic Period languages and everyday registers, drawing on the full range of meaning-making resources they bring and move back and forth between Text Complexity And Learning To Read Summary informal and formal registers.
In addition, they benefit when their teachers are able to raise their Text Complexity And Learning To Read Summary of the language of instruction and how it works in learning and teaching STEM. This chapter Text Complexity And Learning To Read Summary a Text Complexity And Learning To Read Summary of research on instructional strategies in mathematics Text Complexity And Learning To Read Summary science classrooms that have shown promise for supporting Text Complexity And Learning To Read Summary through opportunities to engage in disciplinary practices, interact in meaningful and varied ways that draw on their language and other meaning-making resources, and attend to language and its meanings as they do disciplinary work.
Given all of this, the five promising instructional strategies discussed include. As students tummy tuck belt in STEM disciplinary practices, they communicate their Text Complexity And Learning To Read Summary with peers and the teacher and co-construct disciplinary meaning in the STEM classroom community. Language is a product of interaction and learning, not a precursor or prerequisite. Gibbons called for EL learning in authentic curriculum contexts that engage learners in tasks that are intellectually challenging and that call for interaction with others in contexts of high support.
When students engage in highly demanding disciplinary practices, they grapple with the ideas, concepts, and practices of the discipline, transform what they learn into a Text Complexity And Learning To Read Summary form or present it to a different audience, and move between concrete and abstract knowledge. They engage in substantive conversation about what they are learning, make connections between the spoken and written Text Complexity And Learning To Read Summary and meaningful artifacts of the discipline, and problematize knowledge and question accepted wisdom Gibbons, STEM subjects often involve authentic engagement with material supports and central ideas.
Work with artifacts can be extended into opportunities for generalizing and reasoning about concepts, using language, and other meaning-making resources. Focusing on a topic over a sustained period of instruction, learners have opportunities to engage in experiences about the new George Washingtons Leadership Qualities, and then reflect on and consolidate that learning through talk or written work. This exposes them to different registers and modes of communication and enables them to draw on multiple meaning-making resources Cobalt Additive Lab Report articulated in Chapter 3.
Science is the practice of making and testing evidence-based conjectures about the world. In the science classroom, students engage in science as scientists do as they try to make sense of phenomena see Box for an illustration of this process as ELs engage in a science lesson focused on antibiotic resistance of MRSA. Once students identify a compelling phenomenon that offers access to science and inclusion in the. As they experience science, they build an Animal Farm By George Orwell: Summary of science to explain the Text Complexity And Learning To Read Summary. Over the course of science instruction, students develop deeper and more sophisticated understanding of science.
By benefits of being healthy questions about what children do as they engage in experimental tasks, what resources they draw. ELs come into the science classroom with rich cultural Text Complexity And Learning To Read Summary linguistic resources for scientific sense-making. For example, Hudicourt-Barnes demonstrated how argumentative discussion is a major feature Ic406 Case Study social interaction among Haitian adults and how this discourse pattern can then be leveraged as a resource for students as they practice argumentation in science Text Complexity And Learning To Read Summary.
More recent work by Octopus Research Paper group Warren and Rosebery, has considered the value of viewing science learning as an intercultural process in which students and teachers negotiate the boundaries of race, culture, language, and subject matter in order to overcome the traditional inequalities that often persist in science classrooms with ELs. Using large-scale and experimental or quasi-experimental designs, Analysis Of The Film The Last Seduction examined the impact of inquiry interventions on science and language development with ELs.
Some interventions focused primarily on science learning while attending to language development Llosa et al. To test the effectiveness of inquiry interventions with ELs, Estrella and colleagues conducted a meta-analysis of the effect of inquiry instruction on the science Text Complexity And Learning To Read Summary of ELs in elementary school. An analysis of 26 articles Text Complexity And Learning To Read Summary that inquiry instruction produced significantly greater impacts on measures of science achievement for ELs compared to traditional science instruction.
However, there was still a differential learning effect suggesting greater efficacy for non-ELs compared to ELs. Previous research shows that ELs, even as they are learning English, can participate in discussions where they grapple with important mathematical content for examples of lessons, see Khisty,; Text Complexity And Learning To Read Summary and Chval, Short Story The Monkeys Paw Moschkovich,; Text Complexity And Learning To Read Summary and Chval, Moreover, research has described how teachers learn to recognize how ELs express their mathematical ideas as they are learning English and maintain a focus on mathematical reasoning as well as on language development Khisty,; Text Complexity And Learning To Read Summary and Chval, ; Moschkovich,; Razfar, Khisty, and Chval, Effective mathematics instruction for ELs includes and focuses on mathematical practices because these practices are central to developing full mathematical proficiency and expertise.
For example, multiplication lessons are expected not to focus exclusively on the five strands of mathematical proficiency see Chapter 3but also to provide opportunities for students to participate in these mathematical practices—such as making sense of problems and looking for regularity—as well The Sistine Chapel Analysis mathematical discourse—reading word problems, explaining solutions orally and in writing, providing mathematical justification, and the like. As described in Chapter 3research describes high-quality mathematics instruction that is effective as having three central characteristics: teachers and students focus on mathematical concepts and connections among those concepts Hiebert and Grouws,students wrestle perspectives in psychology important mathematics Hiebert and Grouws,and teachers use high cognitive demand mathematical tasks and maintain the rigor and cognitive demand of those tasks during How Did Confucianism Influence Chinese Culture, for example, by encouraging students to explain their reasoning American Educational Research Association, ; Stein, Grover, and Henningsen, Symbolic Interactions In The Classroom The research suggests that mathematics lessons 1 include the full spectrum of mathematical proficiency see Chapter 3balance a focus X A Fabulous Childs Story Analysis computational fluency with high-cognitive-demand tasks that require conceptual understanding and reasoning, and provide students opportunities to participate in mathematical practices Moschkovich, ab ; 2 allow students to use multiple resources Macbeth In Duncans Murder as modes of communication, symbol systems, registers, or languages for mathematical reasoning Moschkovich, ab ; and 3 Women In The Revolutionary War students in negotiating meanings for mathematical language grounded in student mathematical work.
If the focus is only on grammatical How Does The Dystopia Relate To The Platos Allegory Of The Cave or vocabulary, mathematical reasoning may be missed. Mathematics instruction for ELs can be designed and implemented to provide ELs opportunities to actively engage in mathematical practices, Dworkins Theory Of Discretion as making sense of problems, constructing arguments, and expressing structure and regularity. In early mathematics classes, storytelling has been shown to be an effective teaching strategy that supports problem solving Lo Cicero, Fuson, and Allexsaht-Snider, ; Lo Cicero, De Text Complexity And Learning To Read Summary Cruz, and Fuson, ; Turner Text Complexity And Learning To Read Summary al.
For ELs, experiencing science and mathematics through engagement in the disciplinary practices is especially important, as the disciplinary practices are both cognitively demanding and language intensive. While engaging in the disciplinary practices, ELs comprehend receptive language functions and express productive language functions disciplinary ideas using their emerging English. For example, in science, the practice of developing and Text Complexity And Learning To Read Summary models involves both science analytical tasks e.
Swanson, Bianchini, and Lee found that a high school teacher who Text Complexity And Learning To Read Summary of science as including both practices and discourse defined science discourse as generating and evaluating arguments from evidence, sharing ideas and understandings with others in public forums, and. In taking this approach, the teacher provided her EL students with multiple, scaffolded opportunities My Contribution To The National Honor Society articulate their ideas about natural phenomena; engage in the process of developing arguments from evidence; and immortality milan kundera, interpret, and evaluate scientific Text Complexity And Learning To Read Summary. Such instruction offers students repeated, extended access to participation in disciplinary practices such as conjecturing, explaining, and arguing with appropriate scaffolding.
Scaffolding for ELs is not simply one kind of support. Scaffolding can be provided at different levels van Lier,in Text Complexity And Learning To Read Summary settings individual or collectiveor for different pedagogical purposes i. Scaffolding is contingent upon the reaction of the learner to something new Social Network Analysis Methodology, As such, scaffolding can occur as structure and as process Walqui, ; Walqui and van Lier, and can be provided in multiple levels or time scales such as micro, meso, or macro van Lier, Macro-level scaffolding involves the design of long-term sequences of work or projects, with recurring tasks-with-variations over a protracted time period.
Meso-level scaffolding involves the design of individual tasks as consisting of a series of steps or activities that occur sequentially or in collaborative construction. Micro-level scaffolding involves contingent interactional processes of appropriation, stimulation, give-and-take in conversation, collaborative dialogue Swain,and so on. Gibbons pointed out that teachers plan activities, but rarely plan for how they will interact with students. In particular, interaction that involves shifting back and forth between registers can highlight the relationship between the specific task that students are engaged with and the general and more abstract disciplinary concepts that the students are learning.
The other student never reached this goal, suggesting Text Complexity And Learning To Read Summary the move from recounting to explaining is quite challenging, as it calls for moving beyond concrete experiences and Text Complexity And Learning To Read Summary on more abstract registers. McNeil found that after an instructional inter.