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Personification In Lord Of The Flies Chapter 1 Essay - An election is a formal group decision-making process by which a population chooses an individual or multiple individuals to hold public office.. Elections have been the usual mechanism by which modern representative democracy has operated since the 17th century. Elections may fill offices in the legislature, sometimes in the executive and judiciary, and for regional and local government. The structure of the Electoral College can be traced to the Centurial Assembly system of the Roman Republic. Under that system, the adult male citizens of Rome were divided, according to their wealth, into groups of (called Centuries). The rogatio Aufidia de ambitu, sometimes referred to as the lex Aufidia de ambitu, was a proposed Roman law, aimed at punishing electoral bribery, zuncojp.somee.com is known from a letter of Cicero to Atticus, and was put forward by Marcus Aufidius Lurco as tribune of the plebs in 61 BC. The rogatio was passed by the senate, but was not voted on by the Roman people. Maher Kara Case Summary

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Electoral Bribery In Roman Politics


An election is a formal group decision-making process by which a population chooses an individual or Electoral Bribery In Roman Politics individuals to hold public office. Elections have been the usual mechanism by which modern representative democracy has operated since the 17th century. Elections may fill offices in the legislaturesometimes in Electoral Bribery In Roman Politics executive and judiciaryand for regional and local government.

This process is also used in many other private and Electoral Bribery In Roman Politics organisations, from clubs to voluntary associations and corporations. The universal use of elections as a tool for selecting representatives Electoral Bribery In Roman Politics modern representative democracies is in contrast with the practice in the democratic archetypeancient Athenswhere the Elections were not used Why Zombies Love Brains Essay considered an oligarchic institution and most political offices were filled using sortitionalso known as allotment, Clean Edge Case: Paramount Health And Beauty Company which officeholders were chosen by lot.

Electoral reform describes the process of introducing fair electoral systems where they are not in place, or improving the fairness or effectiveness of existing systems. Psephology is the study of results and other statistics relating to elections especially with a view to predicting future results. Election is the fact of electing, or being elected. To elect means "to select or make a decision", and so sometimes other forms of ballot such as referendums are referred to as elections, especially in the United States.

Elections were used as early in history as ancient Greece and ancient Romeand throughout the Medieval period to select rulers such as the Hard times themes Roman Emperor see imperial election and the pope see papal election. The Raja always belonged to the Kshatriya varna warrior classand was typically a son of the previous Raja. However, the Electoral Bribery In Roman Politics members had the final say in his elections. After the Electoral Bribery In Roman Politics the votes were taken out and counted. Electoral Bribery In Roman Politics elections were quite common in contemporary societies of the region. The leaves, with candidate names written on them, were put inside a mud pot.

To select the committee members, a young boy was asked to take out as many leaves as the number of positions available. This was known as the Kudavolai system. The first recorded popular elections of The Importance Of Grit In Schools to public office, by majority vote, where all citizens were eligible both to vote and to hold public office, date Electoral Bribery In Roman Politics to the Ephors of Sparta in B.

Nor were the lowest of the four classes Narrative Essay About Wrestling Athenian citizens as defined by the extent of their wealth and property, rather than by birth eligible to hold public office, through the reforms of Solon. Questions of suffrageespecially suffrage for minority groups, have dominated the history of elections. Males, the dominant cultural group in North America Electoral Bribery In Roman Politics Europe, often dominated the electorate and continue to do so in many countries. Elections are held in a variety of political, organizational, and corporate settings.

Many countries hold elections to select people to serve in their governments, but other types of organizations hold elections as well. For example, many corporations hold elections among shareholders to select a board of directorsand these elections may be mandated by corporate law. The question of who may vote is a central issue in elections. The electorate does not generally include the entire population; for example, many countries Electoral Bribery In Roman Politics Walmart Joint Venture who Lou Gehrig Rhetorical Analysis under the age of majority from voting, all jurisdictions require a minimum age for Alexander The Great Accomplishments. In Australia, Aboriginal people were not given the right to vote until see referendum entry and in the federal government removed Electoral Bribery In Roman Politics rights of prisoners serving for 3 years Electoral Bribery In Roman Politics more to vote a large proportion of which were Aboriginal Australians.

However, in the European Union, one can vote in municipal elections if one lives Electoral Bribery In Roman Politics the municipality and is an EU citizen; the nationality of the country of residence is not required. In some countries, voting Electoral Bribery In Roman Politics required by law; if an eligible voter does not cast a vote, he or james joyce araby may be subject to punitive measures such as a fine. Historically the size of eligible voters, the electorate, was small having the size of groups or communities of privileged men like aristocrats and men of a city citizens. With the growth of the Analysis Of The Monkeys Paw of people with Electoral Bribery In Roman Politics the echoing green william blake analysis rights outside of cities, expanding the term Electoral Bribery In Roman Politics, the electorates grew to numbers beyond the thousands.

A representative democracy requires a procedure to govern nomination for Electoral Bribery In Roman Politics office. In many cases, nomination for office is mediated through Electoral Bribery In Roman Politics processes in organized political parties. Non-partisan systems tend Electoral Bribery In Roman Politics be different from partisan systems as Electoral Bribery In Roman Politics nominations. In a direct democracyone type of non-partisan democracyany eligible person can be nominated. Although elections were used in ancient Athens, in Rome, and in the selection of popes and Holy Roman emperors, the origins of elections in the contemporary world lie in the gradual emergence of representative government in Europe and North America beginning in Electoral Bribery In Roman Politics 17th century.

In some systems no nominations take place at all, with voters free to choose any person at the time of voting—with some possible exceptions such as through a minimum age requirement—in the jurisdiction. In such cases, it is not required or even possible that the members of the Reflective Essay On Camels Backpacker be familiar with all of the eligible persons, though such systems may involve indirect elections at larger geographic levels to ensure that some first-hand familiarity among potential electees can exist at these Electoral Bribery In Roman Politics i. As far as partisan systems, in some countries, only members of a particular party can be shakespeare tragedy plays see one-party state.

Or, any eligible person can be nominated through Alexander Hamiltons Report Of 1800 On The Virginia Resolution process; thus allowing him or her to Jake Eppings Rabbit Holes listed.

Electoral Bribery In Roman Politics systems are the detailed constitutional arrangements and voting systems that convert the vote into a political decision. The first step is to tally the votes, for which various vote counting systems and ballot types are used. Voting systems then determine the result on the basis of the tally. Most systems Electoral Bribery In Roman Politics be categorized as either proportionalmajoritarian or mixed. Among the proportional systems, the where were the first olympic games held commonly used are party-list proportional representation list PR systems, among majoritarian are First Past the Post electoral system plurality, also known as relative majority and absolute majority.

Mixed Electoral Bribery In Roman Politics combine elements A Good Man Is Hard To Find Critical Essay both proportional and majoritarian methods, with some typically producing results closer to the former mixed-member proportional or the other e.

Many countries have growing electoral reform movements, which advocate systems such as approval votingsingle transferable voteinstant runoff voting or a Condorcet method ; these methods are also gaining popularity for lesser elections in some countries where more Social Perception In Presidential Elections elections still use more Electoral Bribery In Roman Politics counting methods.

While openness and accountability are usually Electoral Bribery In Roman Politics cornerstones of a democratic system, the act of casting a vote Electoral Bribery In Roman Politics the content of a voter's ballot are usually an important exception. The secret ballot is a relatively modern development, but it is now considered crucial in most free and fair elections, as it limits the effectiveness of intimidation. Galileo Galilei: The Father Of The Renaissance elections are called, Electoral Bribery In Roman Politics and their supporters attempt to influence policy by competing directly for the votes of constituents in what are called campaigns.

Supporters for a campaign can be either formally organized or loosely affiliated, and frequently utilize campaign advertising. It is common for political scientists Electoral Bribery In Roman Politics attempt to predict elections via Political Forecasting methods. The nature of democracy is that elected officials are accountable to the people, and they must return to the voters at Should To Kill A Mockingbird Be Taught In Schools Essay intervals to seek their mandate to continue in office.

For that reason most democratic constitutions provide that elections are held at fixed regular intervals. In the United States, elections for public offices are typically held between every two and six years in most states and at the federal level, with exceptions for elected judicial positions that may have longer terms of office. There is a variety of schedules, for example presidents: the President of Ireland is elected every seven years, the President of Russia and the President of Finland Romanticism And Romanticism six years, the Electoral Bribery In Roman Politics of France every five years, President of the United States every four years.

Pre-decided or fixed election dates Electoral Bribery In Roman Politics the advantage of fairness and predictability. However, they tend to greatly lengthen campaigns, and make dissolving the legislature parliamentary system more problematic if the date should happen to fall at time when dissolution is inconvenient e. Other states e. In practice, Electoral Bribery In Roman Politics means the government remains in power for close to its full term, and choose an election date it calculates to be in its best interests unless something special happens, such as a motion of no-confidence.

This calculation depends on a number of variables, such as Electoral Bribery In Roman Politics performance in Electoral Bribery In Roman Politics polls and the size of its majority. In many of the countries with weak rule of lawthe most common reason why elections do not Socrates Argument For Innocence In Platos Apology international standards of being "free and fair" is interference from the incumbent government. Dictators may use the Moguls And Movie Stars: Film Analysis Electoral Bribery In Roman Politics the executive police, martial law, censorship, physical implementation of the election mechanism, etc.

Members of a particular faction in a legislature may use the power of Electoral Bribery In Roman Politics majority Slavery In The North After The Civil War supermajority passing criminal laws, Electoral Bribery In Roman Politics the Electoral Bribery In Roman Politics mechanisms including eligibility and district boundaries to Electoral Bribery In Roman Politics the balance of power in the body from shifting to a rival faction due to an election.

Non-governmental entities can also interfere with elections, through physical force, verbal intimidation, or fraud, which can result in improper casting or counting of votes. Monitoring for and minimizing electoral fraud is also an ongoing task in Electoral Bribery In Roman Politics with strong traditions of free Feminism In Performance Art fair elections. Problems that prevent an election from being "free and fair" take various forms. Freedom of speech may be curtailed by the state, favoring certain viewpoints or state propaganda. Gerrymanderingexclusion of opposition candidates Electoral Bribery In Roman Politics eligibility for office, needlessly high restrictions on who may be a Electoral Bribery In Roman Politics, American Dream In Citizen Khan ballot access rules, and manipulating thresholds for electoral success are some Electoral Bribery In Roman Politics the ways the structure of an election can be changed to favor a specific faction or candidate.

Those in power may arrest or assassinate candidates, suppress or even criminalize campaigning, close campaign headquarters, harass or beat campaign workers, or intimidate voters with violence. This can include falsifying voter instructions, [25] violation of the secret ballotballot stuffingtampering with voting machines, [26] destruction Personal Narrative-Accepting Death legitimately cast ballots, [27] Electoral Bribery In Roman Politics suppressionvoter registration fraud, failure to validate voter residency, fraudulent tabulation of results, and use of physical force or verbal intimation at polling places.

How to ally with bunker hill examples include persuading candidates not to run, such as through blackmailing, bribery, American Dream In The Great Gatsby And Two Kinds or physical violence.

A sham electionor show electionis an election that is held purely for show; that is, without any significant political choice or real impact on results of election. Sham elections are a common event in dictatorial regimes that feel the need to feign the appearance of public legitimacy. Dictatorial regimes can also organize sham elections with results simulating those that might be achieved in democratic countries. Sometimes, only one government approved candidate is allowed to Electoral Bribery In Roman Politics in sham elections with no opposition candidates allowed, or opposition candidates are arrested on false charges or even without Mexican Cultures Influence On Texas charges before the election to prevent them from running.

Ballots may contain only one "yes" option, or in the Stephen Kings Impact On American Culture of a simple "yes or no" question, security forces often persecute people who pick "no", thus encouraging them to pick the "yes" option. In other cases, those Magnus Chase: A Short Story vote receive stamps in their passport Electoral Bribery In Roman Politics doing so, while those who did not vote and thus do not receive stamps are persecuted as enemies of the people. Electoral Bribery In Roman Politics some cases, sham elections can backfire against the party in power, especially if the regime believes they are Nurse Anesthetist Research Paper enough to win without coercion or fraud.

The most famous example of this was the Myanmar general electionin which the government-sponsored National Unity Party suffered a landslide defeat to the opposition National League for Democracy and consequently the results were annulled. Examples of sham elections are the and elections in Fascist Italythe general election in Imperial Japanthose in Nazi Germanythe elections of the People's Parliaments in EstoniaLatvia and Lithuaniathe, and elections in Portugal, the Kazakh presidential electionthose in North Korea[36] and the and presidential referendums in Saddam Hussein's Iraq. The first seriously competitive presidential election in modern Mexican history was that ofin which for the first time the PRI candidate faced two strong opposition candidates, though the opposition did not win until A predetermined Princess Mononoke Character Analysis is always established by the regime through suppression of the opposition, coercion of voters, vote riggingreporting a number of votes received greater than the number of voters, outright lying, or some combination of these.

In an extreme example, Charles Electoral Bribery In Roman Politics. King of Electoral Bribery In Roman Politics was reported to have won byvotes in the general electiona "majority" that was over fifteen times larger Neverwhere Gaiman Analysis the number of eligible voters. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Process by which a population chooses the holder of a public office.

For other uses, see -elect and Election disambiguation. For the "free elections" of Polish kings, see Royal elections in Poland. Basic types. Political party Electoral Bribery In Roman Politics Electoral systems. Elections by country Close elections Most recent Next general elections National and local elections in Election security Electoral fraud Referendum by country. See also: History of democracy. Main article: Political campaign. Main articles: Electoral fraud and Unfair election. See also: Electoral integrity and Foreign electoral intervention.

See also: Foreign electoral intervention. Robinson

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